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Internal Revenue Code, § 751. Unrealized Receivables And Inventory Items

I.R.C. § 751(a) Sale Or Exchange Of Interest In Partnership
The amount of any money, or the fair market value of any property, received by a transferor partner in exchange for all or a part of his interest in the partnership attributable to—
I.R.C. § 751(a)(1)
unrealized receivables of the partnership, or
I.R.C. § 751(a)(2)
inventory items of the partnership,
shall be considered as an amount realized from the sale or exchange of property other than a capital asset.
I.R.C. § 751(b) Certain Distributions Treated As Sales Or Exchanges
I.R.C. § 751(b)(1) General Rule
To the extent a partner receives in a distribution—
I.R.C. § 751(b)(1)(A)
partnership property which is—
I.R.C. § 751(b)(1)(A)(i)
unrealized receivables, or
I.R.C. § 751(b)(1)(A)(ii)
inventory items which have appreciated substantially in value,
in exchange for all or a part of his interest in other partnership property (including money), or
I.R.C. § 751(b)(1)(B)
partnership property (including money) other than property described in subparagraph (A)(i) or (ii) in exchange for all or a part of his interest in partnership property described in subparagraph (A)(i) or (ii),
such transactions shall, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, be considered as a sale or exchange of such property between the distributee and the partnership (as constituted after the distribution).
I.R.C. § 751(b)(2) Exceptions
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to—
I.R.C. § 751(b)(2)(A)
A distribution of property which the distributee contributed to the partnership, or
I.R.C. § 751(b)(2)(B)
payments, described in section 736(a), to a retiring partner or successor in interest of a deceased partner.
I.R.C. § 751(b)(3) Substantial Appreciation
For purposes of paragraph (1)—
I.R.C. § 751(b)(3)(A) In General
Inventory items of the partnership shall be considered to have appreciated substantially in value if their fair market value exceeds 120 percent of the adjusted basis to the partnership of such property.
I.R.C. § 751(b)(3)(B) Certain Property Excluded
For purposes of subparagraph (A), there shall be excluded any inventory property if a principal purpose for acquiring such property was to avoid the provisions of this subsection relating to inventory items.
I.R.C. § 751(c) Unrealized Receivables
For purposes of this subchapter, the term “unrealized receivables” includes, to the extent not previously includible in income under the method of accounting used by the partnership, any rights (contractual or otherwise) to payment for—
I.R.C. § 751(c)(1)
goods delivered, or to be delivered, to the extent the proceeds therefrom would be treated as amounts received from the sale or exchange of property other than a capital asset, or
I.R.C. § 751(c)(2)
services rendered, or to be rendered.
For purposes of this section and sections 731, 732, and 741 (but not for purposes of section 736), such term also includes mining property (as defined in section 617(f)(2)), stock in a DISC (as described in section 992(a)), section 1245 property (as defined in section 1245(a)(3)), stock in certain foreign corporations (as described in section 1248), section 1250 property (as defined in section 1250(c)), farm land (as defined in section 1252(a)), franchises, trademarks, or trade names (referred to in section 1253(a)), and an oil, gas, or geothermal property (described in section 1254) but only to the extent of the amount which would be treated as gain to which section 617(d)(1), 995(c), 1245(a), 1248(a), 1250(a), 1252(a), 1253(a), or 1254(a) would apply if (at the time of the transaction described in this section or sections 731, 732, or 741, as the case may be) such property had been sold by the partnership at its fair market value. For purposes of this section and sections 731, 732, and 741 (but not for purposes of section 736), such term also includes any market discount bond (as defined in section 1278) and any short-term obligation (as defined in section 1283) but only to the extent of the amount which would be treated as ordinary income if (at the time of the transaction described in this section or section 731, 732, or 741, as the case may be) such property had been sold by the partnership.
I.R.C. § 751(d) Inventory Items
For purposes of this subchapter, the term “inventory items” means—
I.R.C. § 751(d)(1)
property of the partnership of the kind described in section 1221(a)(1),
I.R.C. § 751(d)(2)
any other property of the partnership which, on sale or exchange by the partnership, would be considered property other than a capital asset and other than property described in section 1231, and
I.R.C. § 751(d)(3)
any other property held by the partnership which, if held by the selling or distributee partner, would be considered property of the type described in paragraph (1) or (2).
I.R.C. § 751(e) Limitation On Tax Attributable To Deemed Sales Of Section 1248 Stock
For purposes of applying this section and sections 731 and 741 to any amount resulting from the reference to section 1248(a) in the second sentence of subsection (c), in the case of an individual, the tax attributable to such amount shall be limited in the manner provided by subsection (b) of section 1248 (relating to gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporation).
I.R.C. § 751(f) Special Rules In The Case Of Tiered Partnerships, Etc.
In determining whether property of a partnership is—
I.R.C. § 751(f)(1)
an unrealized receivable, or
I.R.C. § 751(f)(2)
an inventory item,
such partnership shall be treated as owning its proportionate share of the property of any other partnership in which it is a partner. Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of the preceding sentence shall also apply in the case of interests in trusts.
(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 250; Oct. 16, 1962, Pub. L. 87-834, 13(f)(1), 14(b)(2), 76 Stat. 1035, 1041; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88-272, title II, 231(b)(6), 78 Stat. 105; Sept. 12, 1966, Pub. L. 89-570, 1(c), 80 Stat. 762; Dec. 30, 1969, Pub. L. 91-172, title II, 211(b)(6), 83 Stat. 570; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94-455, title II, 205(b), title X, 1042(c)(2), title XI, 1101(d)(2), title XIX, 1901(a)(93), 1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, 2110(a), 90 Stat. 1535, 1637, 1658, 1780, 1834, 1905; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95-600, title VII, 701(u)(13)(A), 92 Stat. 2918; Nov. 9, 1978, Pub. L. 95-618, title IV, 402(c)(5), 92 Stat. 3202; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97-448, title I, 102(a)(6), 96 Stat. 2368; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, 43(c)(3), 76(a), title IV, 492(b)(4), 98 Stat. 558, 595, 854; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, title II, 201(d)(10), title XVIII, 1899A(19), 100 Stat. 2141, 2959; Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Sec. 13206(e)(1), 13262(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 312; Pub. L. 105-34, title X, Sec. 1062(a), (b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat 788; Pub. L. 105-206, title VI, Sec. 6010(m), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat 685; Pub. L. 106-170, title V, Sec. 532(c), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat 1860; Pub. L. 108-357, title IV, Sec. 413(c)(11), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1418; Pub. L. 115-141, Div. U, title IV, Sec. 401(a)(140), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 348.)
BACKGROUND NOTES
AMENDMENTS
2018--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115-141, Div. U, Sec. 401(a)(140), amended subsec. (c) by substituting ‘‘and sections’’ for ‘‘and, sections’’ both places it appears.
2004--Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108-357, Sec. 413(c)(11), amended subsec. (d) by inserting “and” at the end of par. (2); by striking par. (3); by redesignating par. (4) as par. (3); and by substituting “paragraph (1) or (2)” for “paragraph (1), (2), or (3) in par. (3), as redesignated. Before being struck, par. (3) read as follows:
“(3) any other property of the partnership which, if sold or exchanged by the partnership, would result in a gain taxable under subsection (a) of section 1246 (relating to gain on foreign investment company stock), and”.
1999--Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106-170, amended subsec. (c)(2)(F) substituted “section 1221(a)(1)” for “section 1211(1)”.
1998--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105-206, Sec. 6010(m), amended subsec. (c) by substituting “731, 732,” for “731” each place it appeared.
1997--Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1062(a), amended paragraph (2). Prior to amendment it read as follows: “(2) inventory items of the partnership which have appreciated substantially in value,”.
Subsec. (b)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1062 (b)(1)(A). Struck subparagraphs (A) and (B) and inserted new subparagraphs (A) and (B). Prior to amendment, subparagraphs (A) and (B) read as follows:
“(A) partnership property described in subsection (a)(1) or (2) in exchange for all or a part of his interest in other partnership property (including money), or
“(B) partnership property (including money) other than property described in subsection (a)(1) or (2) in exchange for all or a part of his interest in partnership property described in subsection (a)(1) or (2).”
Subsec. (b)(3).Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1062(b)(1)(B). Added a new paragraph (3) at the end of subsection (b).
Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1062(b)(2) generally amended subsection (d). Prior to amendment it read as follows:
“(d) Inventory items which have appreciated substantially in value
“(1) Substantial appreciation.--
“(A) In general.--Inventory items of the partnership shall be considered to have appreciated substantially in value if their fair market value exceeds 120 percent of the adjusted basis to the partnership of such property.
“(B) Certain property excluded.--For purposes of subparagraph (A), there shall be excluded any inventory property if a principal purpose for acquiring such property was to avoid the provisions of this section relating to inventory items.
“(2) Inventory items.—For purposes of this subchapter the term ‘inventory items' means--
“(A) property of the partnership of the kind described in section 1221(1),
“(B) any other property of the partnership which, on sale or exchange by the partnership, would be considered property other than a capital asset and other than property described in section 1231,
“(C) any other property of the partnership which, if sold or exchanged by the partnership, would result in a gain taxable under subsection (a) of section 1246 (relating to gain on foreign investment company stock), and
“(D) any other property held by the partnership which, if held by the selling or distributee partner, would be considered property of the type described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C).”
1993—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13262(b)(1)(A), amended subsec. (c) by substituting “, sections 731 and 741 (but not for purposes of section 736)” for “sections 731, 736, and 741” each place it appears.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13262(b)(1)(B), amended subsec. (c) by substituting “section 731 or 741” for “section 731, 736, or 741” each place it appears.
Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13206(e)(1), amended par. (1). Before amendment, it read as follows:
“(1) Substantial appreciation.—Inventory items of the partnership shall be considered to have appreciated substantially in value if their fair market value exceeds--
“(A) 120 percent of the adjusted basis to the partnership of such property, and
“(B) 10 percent of the fair market value of all partnership property, other than money.”
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13262(b)(2)(A), amended subsec. (e) by substituting “sections 731 and 741” for “sections 731, 736, and 741”.
1986--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-514, 1899A(19), substituted “section 617(f)(2)), stock” for “section 617(f)(2), stock” in second sentence.
Pub. L. 99-514, 201(d)(10), struck out “section 1245 recovery property (as defined in section 1245(a)(5)),” before “stock in certain foreign corporations" in second sentence.
1984--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98-369, 492(b)(4), struck out “farm recapture property (as defined in section 1251(e)(1)),” before “farm land”, and “1251(c),” after “1250(a),” in provision after par. (2).
Pub. L. 98-369, 43(c)(3), inserted last sentence.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98-369, 76(a), added subsec. (f).
1983--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97-448 inserted reference to section 1245 recovery property (as defined in section 1245(a)(5)).
1978--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95-618 substituted “oil, gas, or geothermal property” for “oil or gas property”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95-600 added subsec. (e).
1976--Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94-455, 1906(b)(13)(A), struck out “or his delegate” after “Secretary”.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94-455, 205(b), 1042(c)(2), 1101(d)(2), 1901(a)(93), 2110(a), inserted reference to stock in a DISC (as described in section 992(a)), reference to stock in certain foreign corporations (as described in section 1248), and reference to farm land (as defined in section 1252(a)), franchises, trademarks or trade names (referred to in section 1253(a)), and an oil or gas property (described in section 1254), substituted “1252(a), 1253(a), or 1254(a)” for “or 1252(a)”, and inserted “1248(a),” after “1245(a),” and “995(c),” after “617(d)(1),”.
1969--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91-172 substituted “section 1250 property (as defined in section 1250(c)), farm recapture property (as defined in section 1251(e)(1)), and farm land (as defined in section 1252(a))”, and “1250(a), 1251(c), or 1252(a)”, for “and section 1250 property (as defined in section 1250(c))” and “1250(a)”, respectively.
1966--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89-570 inserted reference to mining property (as defined in section 617(f)(2)) and to section 617(d)(1).
1964--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88-272 inserted reference to section 1250.
1962--Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87-834, 13(f)(1), defined “unrealized receivables” for purposes of this section and section 731, 736, and 741, as including section 1245 property, but only to the extent of the amount which would be treated as gain to which section 1245(a) would apply if (at the time of the transaction described in this section or section 731, 736, or 741, as the case may be) such property had been sold by the partnership at its fair market value.
Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 87-834, 14(b)(2), added subpar. (C), redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D), and substituted “subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)" for “subparagraph (A) or (B)”.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2018 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Pub. L. 115-141, Div. U, Sec. 401(a)(140), effective March 23, 2018.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2004 AMENDMENTS
Amendments by Sec. 413(c)(11) of Pub. L. 108-357 applicable to taxable years of foreign corporations beginning after December 31, 2004, and to taxable years of United States shareholders with or within which such taxable years of foreign corporations end.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1999 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Sec. 532(c)(2)(F) of Pub. L. 106-170 shall apply to instrument held, acquired, entered into, any transaction entered into and supplies held/acquired on or after enactment date of this Act [Enacted: Dec. 17, 1999].
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1998 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Sec. 6010(m) of Pub. L. 105-206 applicable as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 to which it relates [Effective Date of Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1061: sales, exchanges, and distributions after Aug. 5, 1997, but see exceptions set forth below].
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENTS
Section 1062(c) of Pub. L. 105-34, provided that:
“(1) In general.--The amendments made by this section shall apply to sales, exchanges, and distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].” Section 1062(c)(2) provided the following exception:
“(2) Binding contracts.--The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any sale or exchange pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on June 8, 1997, and at all times thereafter before such sale or exchange”.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Sec. 13206(e)(1) of Pub. L. 103-66 effective for sales, exchanges, and distributions after April 30, 1993.
Amendments by Sec. 13262(b) of Pub. L. 103-66 effective in the case of partners retiring or dying on or after January 5, 1993. Section 13262(c)(2) of Pub. L. 103-66 provided:
“(2) BINDING CONTRACT EXCEPTION.--The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any partner retiring on or after January 5, 1993, if a written contract to purchase such partner's interest in the partnership was binding on January 4, 1993, and at times thereafter before such purchase.”
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by section 201(d)(10) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, with exceptions, see sections 203 and 204 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.
Amendment by section 201(d)(10) of Pub. L. 99-514 not applicable to any property placed in service before Jan. 1, 1994, if such property placed in service as part of specified rehabilitations, and not applicable to certain additional rehabilitations, see section 251(d)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 46 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by section 43(c)(3) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years ending after July 18, 1984, see section 44 of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1271 of this title.
Section 76(b) of Pub. L. 98-369 provided that: “The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions, sales, and exchanges made after March 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date.”
Amendment by section 492(b)(4) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 492(d) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Pub. L. 97-448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97-34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97-448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Pub. L. 95-618 applicable with respect to wells commenced on or after Oct. 1, 1978, in taxable years ending on or after such date, see section 402(e) of Pub. L. 95-618, set out as a note under section 263 of this title.
Section 701(u)(13)(C) of Pub. L. 95-600 provided that: “The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and section 736 of this title] shall apply to transfers beginning after October 9, 1975, and to sales, exchanges, and distributions taking place after such date.”
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by section 205(b) of Pub. L. 94-455 effective for taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 205(e) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1254 of this title.
Amendment by section 1042(c)(2) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable to transfers beginning after Oct. 9, 1975, and to sales, exchanges and distributions taking place after that date, see section 1042(e)(1) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section 367 of this title.
Amendment by section 1101(d)(2) of Pub. L. 94-455 applicable to sales, exchanges, or other dispositions after Dec. 31, 1975, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 1101(g)(4) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section 995 of this title.
Amendment by section 1901(a)(93) of Pub. L. 94-455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94-455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.
Section 2110(b) of Pub. L. 94-455, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514, 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “Subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to transactions described in sections 731, 736, 741, or 751 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] which occur after December 31, 1976, in taxable years ending after that date.”
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1969 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Pub. L. 91-172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 211(c) of Pub. L. 91-172, set out as a note under section 301 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Pub. L. 89-570 applicable to taxable years ending after Sept. 12, 1966, but only in respect of expenditures paid or incurred after such date see section 3 of Pub. L. 89-570, set out as an Effective Date note under section 617 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1964 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Pub. L. 88-272 applicable to dispositions after Dec. 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 231(c) of Pub. L. 88-272, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1250 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1962 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by section 13(f)(1) of Pub. L. 87-834 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 13(g) of Pub. L. 87-834, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1245 of this title.
Amendment by section 14(b)(2) of Pub. L. 87-834 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 14(c) of Pub. L. 87-834, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1246 of this title.