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Internal Revenue Code, § 509. Private Foundation Defined

I.R.C. § 509(a) General Rule
For purposes of this title, the term “private foundation" means a domestic or foreign organization described in section 501(c)(3) other than—
I.R.C. § 509(a)(1)
an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than in clauses (vii) and (viii));
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)
an organization which—
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)(A)
normally receives more than one-third of its support in each taxable year from any combination of—
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)(A)(i)
gifts, grants, contributions, or membership fees, and
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)(A)(ii)
gross receipts from admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities, in an activity which is not an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513), not including such receipts from any person, or from any bureau or similar agency of a governmental unit (as described in section 170(c)(1)), in any taxable year to the extent such receipts exceed the greater of $5,000 or 1 percent of the organization's support in such taxable year,
from persons other than disqualified persons (as defined in section 4946) with respect to the organization, from governmental units described in section 170(c)(1), or from organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A) (other than in clauses (vii) and (viii)), and
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)(B)
normally receives not more than one-third of its support in each taxable year from the sum of—
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)(B)(i)
gross investment income (as defined in subsection (e)) and
I.R.C. § 509(a)(2)(B)(ii)
the excess (if any) of the amount of the unrelated business taxable income (as defined in section 512) over the amount of the tax imposed by section 511;
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)
an organization which—
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)(A)
is organized, and at all times thereafter is operated, exclusively for the benefit of, to perform the functions of, or to carry out the purposes of one or more specified organizations described in paragraph (1) or (2),
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)(B)
is—
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)(B)(i)
operated, supervised, or controlled by one or more organizations described in paragraph (1) or (2),
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)(B)(ii)
supervised or controlled in connection with one or more such organizations, or
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)(B)(iii)
operated in connection with one or more such organizations, and
I.R.C. § 509(a)(3)(C)
is not controlled directly or indirectly by one or more disqualified persons (as defined in section 4946) other than foundation managers and other than one or more organizations described in paragraph (1) or (2); and
I.R.C. § 509(a)(4)
an organization which is organized and operated exclusively for testing for public safety.
For purposes of paragraph (3), an organization described in paragraph (2) shall be deemed to include an organization described in section 501(c)(4), (5), or (6) which would be described in paragraph (2) if it were an organization described in section 501(c)(3).
I.R.C. § 509(b) Continuation Of Private Foundation Status
For purposes of this title, if an organization is a private foundation (within the meaning of subsection (a)) on October 9, 1969, or becomes a private foundation on any subsequent date, such organization shall be treated as a private foundation for all periods after October 9, 1969, or after such subsequent date, unless its status as such is terminated under section 507.
I.R.C. § 509(c) Status Of Organization After Termination Of Private Foundation Status
For purposes of this part, an organization the status of which as a private foundation is terminated under section 507 shall (except as provided in section 507(b)(2)) be treated as an organization created on the day after the date of such termination.
I.R.C. § 509(d) Definition Of Support
For purposes of this part and chapter 42, the term “support” includes (but is not limited to)—
I.R.C. § 509(d)(1)
gifts, grants, contributions, or membership fees,
I.R.C. § 509(d)(2)
gross receipts from admissions, sales of merchandise, performance of services, or furnishing of facilities in any activity which is not an unrelated trade or business (within the meaning of section 513),
I.R.C. § 509(d)(3)
net income from unrelated business activities, whether or not such activities are carried on regularly as a trade or business,
I.R.C. § 509(d)(4)
gross investment income (as defined in subsection (e)),
I.R.C. § 509(d)(5)
tax revenues levied for the benefit of an organization and either paid to or expended on behalf of such organization, and
I.R.C. § 509(d)(6)
the value of services or facilities (exclusive of services or facilities generally furnished to the public without charge) furnished by a governmental unit referred to in section 170(c)(1) to an organization without charge.
Such term does not include any gain from the sale or other disposition of property which would be considered as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset, or the value of exemption from any Federal, State, or local tax or any similar benefit.
I.R.C. § 509(e) Definition Of Gross Investment Income
For purposes of subsection (d), the term “gross investment income” means the gross amount of income from interest, dividends, payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in section 512(a)(5)), rents, and royalties, but not including any such income to the extent included in computing the tax imposed by section 511. Such term shall also include income from sources similar to those in the preceding sentence.
I.R.C. § 509(f) Requirements For Supporting Organizations
I.R.C. § 509(f)(1) Type III Supporting Organizations
For purposes of subsection (a)(3)(B)(iii), an organization shall not be considered to be operated in connection with any organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a) unless such organization meets the following requirements:
I.R.C. § 509(f)(1)(A) Responsiveness
For each taxable year beginning after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the organization provides to each supported organization such information as the Secretary may require to ensure that such organization is responsive to the needs or demands of the supported organization.
I.R.C. § 509(f)(1)(B) Foreign Supported Organizations
I.R.C. § 509(f)(1)(B)(i) In General
The organization is not operated in connection with any supported organization that is not organized in the United States.
I.R.C. § 509(f)(1)(B)(ii) Transition Rule For Existing Organizations
If the organization is operated in connection with an organization that is not organized in the United States on the date of the enactment of this subsection, clause (i) shall not apply until the first day of the third taxable year of the organization beginning after the date of the enactment of this subsection.
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2) Organizations Controlled By Donors
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(A) In General
For purposes of subsection (a)(3)(B), an organization shall not be considered to be—
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(A)(i)
operated, supervised, or controlled by any organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), or
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(A)(ii)
operated in connection with any organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a), if such organization accepts any gift or contribution from any person described in subparagraph (B).
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(B) Person Described
A person is described in this subparagraph if, with respect to a supported organization of an organization described in subparagraph (A), such person is—
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(B)(i)
a person (other than an organization described in paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of section 509(a)) who directly or indirectly controls, either alone or together with persons described in clauses (ii) and (iii), the governing body of such supported organization,
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(B)(ii)
a member of the family (determined under section 4958(f)(4)) of an individual described in clause (i), or
I.R.C. § 509(f)(2)(B)(iii)
a 35-percent controlled entity (as defined in section 4958(f)(3) by substituting “persons described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 509(f)(2)(B)” for “persons described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1)” in subparagraph (A)(i) thereof).
I.R.C. § 509(f)(3) Supported Organization
For purposes of this subsection, the term “supported organization” means, with respect to an organization described in subsection (a)(3), an organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a)—
I.R.C. § 509(f)(3)(A)
for whose benefit the organization described in subsection (a)(3) is organized and operated, or
I.R.C. § 509(f)(3)(B)
with respect to which the organization performs the functions of, or carries out the purposes of.
(Added Pub. L. 91-172, title I, 101(a), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 496, and amended Pub. L. 94-81, 3(a), Aug. 9, 1975, 89 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 95-345, 2(a)(1), Aug. 15, 1978, 92 Stat. 481; Pub. L. 109-280, title XII, Sec. 1221(a), 1241, Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 780.)
BACKGROUND NOTES
AMENDMENTS
2006 - Subsec. (a)(3)(B).Pub. L. 109-280, Sec. 1241(a), amended subpar. (B). Before amendment, it read as follows:
“(B) is operated, supervised, or controlled by or in connection with one or more organizations described in paragraph (1) or (2), and”.
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109-280, Sec. 1221(a)(2), amended subsec. (e) by adding the sentence at the end.
Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109-280, Sec. 1241(b), added subsec. (f).
1978--Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95-345 inserted provision relating to payments with respect to securities loans.
1975--Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 94-81 designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2006 AMENDMENTS
Amendment by Section 1221 of Pub. L. 109-280 effective for taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Aug. 17, 2006].
Amendments by Section 1241 of Pub. L. 109-280 effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Aug. 17, 2006].
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT
Section 2(e) of Pub. L. 95-345, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514, 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: “The amendments made by this section [enacting section 1058 of this title and amending sections 509, 512, 514, 851, and 4940 of this title] apply with respect to--
“(1) amounts received after December 31, 1976, as payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in section 512(a)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]), and
“(2) transfers of securities, under agreements described in section 1058 of such Code, occurring after such date.”
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1975 AMENDMENT
Section 3(b) of Pub. L. 94-81 provided that: “The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to unrelated business taxable income derived from trades and businesses which are acquired by the organization after June 30, 1975.”
Effective Date
Section effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91-172, set out as a note under section 4940 of this title.
PAYMENTS BY CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN FIREFIGHTERS TREATED AS EXEMPT PAYMENTS
Section 2 of Pub. L. 113-63 provided that:
“(a) IN GENERAL.-For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, payments made to—
“(1) any firefighter who was injured as a result of the ambush of firefighters responding to an emergency on December 24, 2012, in Webster, New York,
“(2) the spouse of any firefighter who died as a result of such ambush, or
“(3) any dependent (as defined in section 152 of such Code) of any firefighter who died as a result of such ambush,
by an organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 509(a) of such Code shall be treated as related to the purpose or function constituting the basis for such organization's exemption under section 501 of such Code if such payments are made in good faith using a reasonable and objective formula which is consistently applied.
“(b) APPLICATION.-Subsection (a) shall apply only to payments made on or after December 24, 2012, and before the later of—
“(1) January 1, 2014, or
“(2) the date which is 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Dec. 20, 2013].”
PAYMENTS BY CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN FIREFIGHTERS TREATED AS EXEMPT PAYMENTS
Section 2 of Pub. L. 109-445 provided that:
“(a) In General-For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, payments made on behalf of any firefighter who died as the result of the October 2006 Esperanza Incident fire in southern California to any family member of such firefighter by an organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 509(a) of such Code shall be treated as related to the purpose or function constituting the basis for such organization's exemption under section 501 of such Code if such payments are made in good faith using a reasonable and objective formula which is consistently applied.
“(b) Application-Subsection (a) shall apply only to payments made on or after October 26, 2006, and before June 1, 2007.”
CHARITABLE TRUSTS WHICH ARE TYPE III SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS
Section 1241(c) of Pub. L. 109-280 provided that:
“For purposes of section 509(a)(3)(B)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, an organization which is a trust shall not be considered to be operated in connection with any organization described in paragraph (1) or (2) of section 509(a) of such Code solely because--
“(1) it is a charitable trust under State law,
“(2) the supported organization (as defined in section 509(f)(3) of such Code) is a beneficiary of such trust, and
“(3) the supported organization (as so defined) has the power to enforce the trust and compel an accounting.”
PAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR TYPE III SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS
Section 1241(d) of Pub. L. 109-280 provided that:
“(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of the Treasury shall promulgate new regulations under section 509 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 on payments required by type III supporting organizations which are not functionally integrated type III supporting organizations. Such regulations shall require such organizations to make distributions of a percentage of either income or assets to supported organizations (as defined in section 509(f)(3) of such Code) in order to ensure that a significant amount is paid to such organizations.
“(2) TYPE III SUPPORTING ORGANIZATION; FUNCTIONALLY INTEGRATED TYPE III SUPPORTING ORGANIZATION- For purposes of paragraph (1), the terms ‘type III supporting organization’ and ‘functionally integrated type III supporting organization’ have the meanings given such terms under subparagraphs (A) and (B) section 4943(f)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this Act), respectively.”
PAYMENTS BY CHARITABLE ORGANIZATIONS TREATED AS EXEMPT PAYMENTS
Sec. 104 of Pub. L. 107-134 provided that:
“(a) IN GENERAL- For purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986--
“(1) payments made by an organization described in section 501(c)(3) of such Code by reason of the death, injury, wounding, or illness of an individual incurred as the result of the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, or an attack involving anthrax occurring on or after September 11, 2001, and before January 1, 2002, shall be treated as related to the purpose or function constituting the basis for such organization's exemption under section 501 of such Code if such payments are made in good faith using a reasonable and objective formula which is consistently applied, and
“(2) in the case of a private foundation (as defined in section 509 of such Code), any payment described in paragraph (1) shall not be treated as made to a disqualified person for purposes of section 4941 of such Code.
“(b) EFFECTIVE DATE- This section shall apply to payments made on or after September 11, 2001.”
SAVINGS PROVISION
Applicability of subsec. (a) of this section to testamentary trusts, see section 101(l)(7) of Pub. L. 91-172, set out as a note under section 4940 of this title.