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Internal Revenue Code, § 402A. Optional Treatment Of Elective Deferrals As Roth Contributions

I.R.C. § 402A(a) General Rule
If an applicable retirement plan includes a qualified Roth contribution program—
I.R.C. § 402A(a)(1)
any designated Roth contribution made by an employee pursuant to the program shall be treated as an elective deferral for purposes of this chapter, except that such contribution shall not be excludable from gross income, and
I.R.C. § 402A(a)(2)
such plan (and any arrangement which is part of such plan) shall not be treated as failing to meet any requirement of this chapter solely by reason of including such program.
I.R.C. § 402A(b) Qualified Roth Contribution Program
For purposes of this section—
I.R.C. § 402A(b)(1) In General
The term “qualified Roth contribution program” means a program under which an employee may elect to make designated Roth contributions in lieu of all or a portion of elective deferrals the employee is otherwise eligible to make under the applicable retirement plan.
I.R.C. § 402A(b)(2) Separate Accounting Required
A program shall not be treated as a qualified Roth contribution program unless the applicable retirement plan—
I.R.C. § 402A(b)(2)(A)
establishes separate accounts (”designated Roth accounts”) for the designated Roth contributions of each employee and any earnings properly allocable to the contributions, and
I.R.C. § 402A(b)(2)(B)
maintains separate recordkeeping with respect to each account.
I.R.C. § 402A(c) Definitions And Rules Relating To Designated Roth Contributions
For purposes of this section—
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(1) Designated Roth Contribution
The term “designated Roth contribution” means any elective deferral which—
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(1)(A)
is excludable from gross income of an employee without regard to this section, and
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(1)(B)
the employee designates (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) as not being so excludable.
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(2) Designation Limits
The amount of elective deferrals which an employee may designate under paragraph (1) shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(2)(A)
the maximum amount of elective deferrals excludable from gross income of the employee for the taxable year (without regard to this section), over
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(2)(B)
the aggregate amount of elective deferrals of the employee for the taxable year which the employee does not designate under paragraph (1).
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(3) Rollover Contributions
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(3)(A) In General
A rollover contribution of any payment or distribution from a designated Roth account which is otherwise allowable under this chapter may be made only if the contribution is to—
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(3)(A)(i)
another designated Roth account of the individual from whose account the payment or distribution was made, or
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(3)(A)(ii)
a Roth IRA of such individual.
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(3)(B) Coordination With Limit
Any rollover contribution to a designated Roth account under subparagraph (A) shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraph (1).
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4) Taxable Rollovers To Designated Roth Accounts
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(A) In General
Notwithstanding sections 402(c), 403(b)(8), and 457(e)(16), in the case of any distribution to which this paragraph applies—
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(A)(i)
there shall be included in gross income any amount which would be includible were it not part of a qualified rollover contribution,
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(A)(ii)
section 72(t) shall not apply, and
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(A)(iii)
unless the taxpayer elects not to have this clause apply, any amount required to be included in gross income for any taxable year beginning in 2010 by reason of this paragraph shall be so included ratably over the 2-taxable-year period beginning with the first taxable year beginning in 2011.
Any election under clause (iii) for any distributions during a taxable year may not be changed after the due date for such taxable year.
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(B) Distributions To Which Paragraph Applies
In the case of an applicable retirement plan which includes a qualified Roth contribution program, this paragraph shall apply to a distribution from such plan other than from a designated Roth account which is contributed in a qualified rollover contribution (within the meaning of section 408A(e)) to the designated Roth account maintained under such plan for the benefit of the individual to whom the distribution is made.
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(C) Coordination With Limit
Any distribution to which this paragraph applies shall not be taken into account for purposes of paragraph (1).
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(D) Other Rules
The rules of subparagraphs (D), (E), and (F) of section 408A(d)(3) (as in effect for taxable years beginning after 2009) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph.
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(E) Special Rule For Certain Transfers
In the case of an applicable retirement plan which includes a qualified Roth contribution program—
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(E)(i)
the plan may allow an individual to elect to have the plan transfer any amount not otherwise distributable under the plan to a designated Roth account maintained for the benefit of the individual,
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(E)(ii)
such transfer shall be treated as a distribution to which this paragraph applies which was contributed in a qualified rollover contribution (within the meaning of section 408A(e)) to such account, and
I.R.C. § 402A(c)(4)(E)(iii)
the plan shall not be treated as violating the provisions of section 401(k)(2)(B)(i), 403(b)(7)(A)(ii), 403(b)(11), or 457(d)(1)(A), or of section 8433 of title 5, United States Code, solely by reason of such transfer.
I.R.C. § 402A(d) Distribution Rules
For purposes of this title—
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(1) Exclusion
Any qualified distribution from a designated Roth account shall not be includible in gross income.
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(2) Qualified Distribution
For purposes of this subsection—
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(2)(A) In General
The term “qualified distribution” has the meaning given such term by section 408A(d)(2)(A) (without regard to clause (iv) thereof).
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(2)(B) Distributions Within Nonexclusion Period
A payment or distribution from a designated Roth account shall not be treated as a qualified distribution if such payment or distribution is made within the 5-taxable-year period beginning with the earlier of—
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(2)(B)(i)
the first taxable year for which the individual made a designated Roth contribution to any designated Roth account established for such individual under the same applicable retirement plan, or
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(2)(B)(ii)
if a rollover contribution was made to such designated Roth account from a designated Roth account previously established for such individual under another applicable retirement plan, the first taxable year for which the individual made a designated Roth contribution to such previously established account.
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(2)(C) Distributions Of Excess Deferrals And Contributions And Earnings Thereon
The term “qualified distribution” shall not include any distribution of any excess deferral under section 402(g)(2) or any excess contribution under section 401(k)(8), and any income on the excess deferral or contribution.
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(3) Treatment Of Distributions Of Certain Excess Deferrals
Notwithstanding section 72, if any excess deferral under section 402(g)(2) attributable to a designated Roth contribution is not distributed on or before the 1st April 15 following the close of the taxable year in which such excess deferral is made, the amount of such excess deferral shall—
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(3)(A)
not be treated as investment in the contract, and
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(3)(B)
be included in gross income for the taxable year in which such excess is distributed.
I.R.C. § 402A(d)(4) Aggregation Rules
Section 72 shall be applied separately with respect to distributions and payments from a designated Roth account and other distributions and payments from the plan.
I.R.C. § 402A(e) Other Definitions
For purposes of this section—
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(1) Applicable Retirement Plan
The term “applicable retirement plan” means—
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(1)(A)
an employees' trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a),
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(1)(B)
a plan under which amounts are contributed by an individual's employer for an annuity contract described in section 403(b), and
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(1)(C)
an eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)) of an eligible employer described in section 457(e)(1)(A).
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(2) Elective Deferral
The term “elective deferral” means—
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(2)(A)
any elective deferral described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of section 402(g)(3), and
I.R.C. § 402A(e)(2)(B)
any elective deferral of compensation by an individual under an eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)) of an eligible employer described in section 457(e)(1)(A).
(Added by Pub. L. 107-16, title VI, Sec. 617(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 38; amended by Pub. L. 111-240, title II, Sec. 2111, 2112, Sept. 27, 2010, 124 Stat. 2504; Pub. L. 112-240, title IX, Sec. 902(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2313; Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, title II, Sec. 220(k), Dec. 19, 2014.)
BACKGROUND NOTES
AMENDMENTS
2014 - Subsec. (c)(4)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, Sec. 220(k), amended clause (iii) by substituting “403(b)(7)(A)(ii)” for “403(b)(7)(A)(i)”.
2013 - Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 112-240, Sec. 902(a), amended par. (4) by adding subpar. (E).
2010 - Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 111-240, Sec. 2112(a), amended subsec. (c) by adding par. (4).
Subsec. (e)(1)(A)-(C). Pub. L. 111-240, Sec. 2111(a), amended par. (1) by striking “and” at the end of subpar. (A), by substituting “, and” for the period at the end of subpar. (B); and by adding subpar. (C).
Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 111-240, Sec. 2111(b), amended par. (2). Before amendment, it read as follows:
“(2) Elective Deferral.— The term “elective deferral” means any elective deferral described in subparagraph (A) or (C) of section 402(g)(3).”
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2014 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, Sec. 220(k), effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Dec. 19, 2014].
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2013 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Sec. 902 of Pub. L. 112-240 effective for transfers after December 31, 2012 in taxable years ending after such date.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2010 AMENDMENTS
Amendments by Sec. 2111 of Pub. L. 111-240 effective for transfers after December 31, 2012, in taxable years ending after such date.
Amendments by Sec. 2112 of Pub. L. 111-240 effective for distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Sept. 27, 2010].
EFFECTIVE DATE
Effective for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005.
Section 901 (Sunset of Provisions of Act) of Pub. L. 107-16, as amended by Pub. L. 107-358, provided that:
“(a) IN GENERAL.--All provisions of, and amendments made by, this Act shall not apply--
“(1) to taxable, plan, or limitation years beginning after December 31, 2010, or
“(2) in the case of title V, to estates of decedents dying, gifts made, or generation skipping transfers, after December 31, 2010.
“(b) APPLICATION OF CERTAIN LAWS.--The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 shall be applied and administered to years, estates, gifts, and transfers described in subsection (a) as if the provisions and amendments described in subsection (a) had never been enacted.
“(c) EXCEPTION.-Subsection (a) shall not apply to section 803 (relating to no federal income tax on restitution received by victims of the Nazi regime or their heirs or estates).”
PENSIONS AND INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ARRANGEMENT PROVISIONS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAX RELIEF RECONCILIATION ACT OF 2001 MADE PERMANENT
Section 811 of Pub. L. 109-280 provided that:
“Title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107-16] shall not apply to the provisions of, and amendments made by, subtitles A through F [Sections 601-666] of title VI of such Act (relating to pension and individual retirement arrangement provisions).”