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Internal Revenue Code, § 1441. Withholding Of Tax On Nonresident Aliens

I.R.C. § 1441(a) General Rule
Except as otherwise provided in subsection (c), all persons, in whatever capacity acting (including lessees or mortgagors of real or personal property, fiduciaries, employers, and all officers and employees of the United States) having the control, receipt, custody, disposal, or payment of any of the items of income specified in subsection (b) (to the extent that any of such items constitutes gross income from sources within the United States), of any nonresident alien individual or of any foreign partnership shall (except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary under section 874) deduct and withhold from such items a tax equal to 30 percent thereof, except that in the case of any item of income specified in the second sentence of subsection (b), the tax shall be equal to 14 percent of such item.
I.R.C. § 1441(b) Income Items
The items of income referred to in subsection (a) are interest (other than original issue discount as defined in section 1273), dividends, rent, salaries, wages, premiums, annuities, compensations, remunerations, emoluments, or other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gains, profits, and income, gains described in section 631(b) or (c), amounts subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(C), and gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D). The items of income referred to in subsection (a) from which tax shall be deducted and withheld at the rate of 14 percent are amounts which are received by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and which are—
I.R.C. § 1441(b)(1)
incident to a qualified scholarship to which section 117(a) applies, but only to the extent includible in gross income; or
I.R.C. § 1441(b)(2)
in the case of an individual who is not a candidate for a degree at an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii), granted by—
I.R.C. § 1441(b)(2)(A)
an organization described in section 501(c)(3) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a),
I.R.C. § 1441(b)(2)(B)
a foreign government,
I.R.C. § 1441(b)(2)(C)
an international organization, or a binational or multinational educational and cultural foundation or commission created or continued pursuant to the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961, or
I.R.C. § 1441(b)(2)(D)
the United States, or an instrumentality or agency thereof, or a State, or a possession of the United States, or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia,
as a scholarship or fellowship for study, training, or research in the United States.
In the case of a nonresident alien individual who is a member of a domestic partnership, the items of income referred to in subsection (a) shall be treated as referring to items specified in this subsection included in his distributive share of the income of such partnership.
I.R.C. § 1441(c) Exceptions
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(1) Income Connected With United States Business
No deduction or withholding under subsection (a) shall be required in the case of any item of income (other than compensation for personal services) which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and which is included in the gross income of the recipient under section 871(b)(2) for the taxable year.
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(2) Owner Unknown
The Secretary may authorize the tax under subsection (a) to be deducted and withheld from the interest upon any securities the owners of which are not known to the withholding agent.
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(3) Bonds With Extended Maturity Dates
The deduction and withholding in the case of interest on bonds, mortgages, or deeds of trust or other similar obligations of a corporation, within subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 1451 (as in effect before its repeal by the Tax Reform Act of 1984) were it not for the fact that the maturity date of such obligations has been extended on or after January 1, 1934, and the liability assumed by the debtor exceeds 27 12 percent of the interest, shall not exceed the rate of 27 12 percent per annum.
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(4) Compensation Of Certain Aliens
Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, compensation for personal services may be exempted from deduction and withholding under subsection (a).
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(5) Special Items
In the case of gains described in section 631(b) or (c), and gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D), the amount required to be deducted and withheld shall, if the amount of such gain is not known to the withholding agent, be such amount, not exceeding 30 percent of the amount payable, as may be necessary to assure that the tax deducted and withheld shall not be less than 30 percent of such gain.
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(6) Per Diem Of Certain Aliens
No deduction or withholding under subsection (a) shall be required in the case of amounts of per diem for subsistence paid by the United States Government (directly or by contract) to any nonresident alien individual who is engaged in any program of training in the United States under the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended.
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(7) Certain Annuities Received Under Qualified Plans
No deduction or withholding under subsection (a) shall be required in the case of any amount received as an annuity if such amount is, under section 871(f), exempt from the tax imposed by section 871(a).
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(8) Original Issue Discount
The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary for the deduction and withholding of the tax on original issue discount subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(C) including rules for the deduction and withholding of the tax on original issue discount from payments of interest.
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(9) Interest Income From Certain Portfolio Debt Investments
In the case of portfolio interest (within the meaning of section 871(h)), no tax shall be required to be deducted and withheld from such interest unless the person required to deduct and withhold tax from such interest knows, or has reason to know, that such interest is not portfolio interest by reason of section 871(h)(3) or (4).
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(10) Exception For Certain Interest And Dividends
No tax shall be required to be deducted and withheld under subsection (a) from any amount described in section 871(i)(2).
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(11) Certain Gambling Winnings
No tax shall be required to be deducted and withheld under subsection (a) from any amount exempt from the tax imposed by section 871(a)(1)(A) by reason of section 871(j).
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(12) Certain Dividends Received From Regulated Investment Companies
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(12)(A) In General
No tax shall be required to be deducted and withheld under subsection (a) from any amount exempt from the tax imposed by section 871(a)(1)(A) by reason of section 871(k).
I.R.C. § 1441(c)(12)(B) Special Rule
For purposes of subparagraph (A), clause (i) of section 871(k)(1)(B) shall not apply to any dividend unless the regulated investment company knows that such dividend is a dividend referred to in such clause. A similar rule shall apply with respect to the exception contained in section 871(k)(2)(B).
I.R.C. § 1441(d) Exemption Of Certain Foreign Partnerships
Subject to such terms and conditions as may be provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, subsection (a) shall not apply in the case of a foreign partnership engaged in trade or business within the United States if the Secretary determines that the requirements of subsection (a) impose an undue administrative burden and that the collection of the tax imposed by section 871(a) on the members of such partnership who are nonresident alien individuals will not be jeopardized by the exemption.
I.R.C. § 1441(e) Alien Resident Of Puerto Rico
For purposes of this section, the term “nonresident alien individual” includes an alien resident of Puerto Rico.
I.R.C. § 1441(f) Continental Shelf Areas
For sources of income derived from, or for services performed with respect to, the exploration or exploitation of natural resources on submarine areas adjacent to the territorial waters of the United States, see section 638.
I.R.C. § 1441(g) Cross Reference
For provision treating 85 percent of social security benefits as subject to withholding under this section, see section 871(a)(3).
(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 357; Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, Sec. 544(f), as added July 18, 1956, ch. 627, Sec. 11(a), 70 Stat. 563, and amended Aug. 14, 1957, Pub. L. 85-141, Sec. 11(b)(1), 71 Stat. 365; Sept. 2, 1958, Pub. L. 85-866, title I, Sec. 40(b), 72 Stat. 1638; Sept. 21, 1961, Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 110(d), 75 Stat. 536; Feb. 26, 1964, Pub. L. 88-272, title III, Sec. 302(c), 78 Stat. 146; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89-809, title I, Sec. 103(h), 80 Stat. 1553; Dec. 30, 1969, Pub. L. 91-172, title V, Sec. 505(b), 83 Stat. 634; Dec. 10, 1971, Pub. L. 92-178, title III, Sec. 313(a), (d), 85 Stat. 526, 527; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94-455, title XIX, Sec. 1906(b)(13)(A), 90 Stat. 1834; Apr. 20, 1983, Pub. L. 98-21, title I, Sec. 121(c)(2), 97 Stat. 82; July 18, 1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, Sec. 42(a)(13), 127(e)(1), title IV, Sec. 474(r)(29)(G), (H), 98 Stat. 557, 652, 845; Oct. 22, 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, title I, Sec. 123(b)(2), title XII, Sec. 1214(c)(3), title XVIII, Sec. 1810(d)(3)(D), 100 Stat. 2113, 2542, 2825; Nov. 10, 1988, Pub. L. 100-647, title I, Sec. 1001(d)(2)(A), title VI, Sec. 6134(a)(2), 102 Stat. 3350, 3721; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101-508, title XI, Sec. 11704(a)(14), 104 Stat. 1388-518; July 3, 1992, Pub. L. 102-318, title V, sec. 521(b)(32), (33); Aug. 10, 1993, Pub. L. 103-66, title XIII, Sec. 13237(c)(4), 107 Stat. 312; Aug. 15, 1994, Pub. L. 103-296, title III, Sec. 320(a)(1)(B); Oct. 22, 2004, Pub. L. 108-357, title IV, Sec. 411(a)(3), 118 Stat. 1418; Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, title II, Sec. 221(a)(92), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4010.)
BACKGROUND NOTES
Amendments to Chapter
1984--Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title IV, 474(r)(29)(B), (C), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 844, struck out “AND TAX-FREE COVENANT BONDS” after “FOREIGN CORPORATIONS” in heading of chapter 3, and struck out item for subchapter B “Tax-free covenant bonds" and redesignated the item for subchapter C as B.
Amendments to Subchapter
1988--Pub. L. 100-647, title I, 1012(s)(1)(C), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3527, substituted “Withholding of tax on foreign partners' share of effectively connected income” for “Withholding tax on amounts paid by partnerships to foreign partners” in item 1446.
1986--Pub. L. 99-514, title XII, 1246(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2582, added item 1446.
1984--Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, title I, 129(a)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 659, added item 1445.
1983--Pub. L. 97-455, 1(d)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2498, added item 1444.
AMENDMENTS
2014 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, Sec. 221(a)(92), amended the first sentence of subsec. (b) by substituting “and gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D)” for “gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D), and gains on transfers described in section 1235 made on or before October 4, 1966”.
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, Sec. 221(a)(92), amended the first sentence of subsec. (b) by substituting “and gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D)” for “gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D), and gains on transfers described in section 1235 made on or before October 4, 1966”.
2004 - Subsec. (c)(12). Pub. L. 108-357, Sec. 411(a)(3), added par. (12).
1997 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105-34, Sec. 1604(g)(3), substituted “85 percent” for “one-half”.
1994 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-296, Sec. 320(a)(1)(B), struck out ‘(J), or (M)’ and substituted ‘(J), (M), or (Q)’, effective with the calendar quarter following the date of enactment of this Act.
1993 - Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 103-66, Sec. 13237(c)(4), amended par. (9) by substituting “section 871(h)(3) or (4)” for “section 871(h)(3)”.
1992 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102-318, Sec. 521(b)(32), amended subsec. (b) by striking “402(a)(2), 403(a)(2), or” after “described in section”.
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 102-318, Sec. 521(b)(33), amended par. (5) by striking “402(a)(2), 403(a)(2), or” after “described in section”.
1990 - Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101-508 inserted “section” before “170(b)(1)(A)(ii)”.
1988 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 1001(d)(2)(A), amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: ‘The items of income referred to in subsection (a) from which tax shall be deducted and withheld at the rate of 14 percent are amounts which are received by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F) or (J) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act and which are incident to a qualified scholarship to which section 117(a) applies, but only to the extent such amounts are includible in gross income.’
Subsec. (c)(11). Pub. L. 100-647, Sec. 6134(a)(2), added par. (11).
1986 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 123(b)(2), amended second sentence generally. Prior to amendment, second sentence read as follows: “The items of income referred to in subsection (a) from which tax shall be deducted and withheld at the rate of 14 percent are -
“(1) that portion of any scholarship or fellowship grant which is received by a nonresident alien individual who is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F) or (J) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, and which is not excluded from gross income under section 117(a)(1) solely by reason of section 117(b)(2)(B); and
“(2) amounts described in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of section 117(a)(2) which are received by any such nonresident alien individual and which are incident to a scholarship or fellowship grant to which section 117(a)(1) applies, but only to the extent such amounts are includable in gross income.”
Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1810(d)(3)(D), substituted “section 871(h)” for “871(h)(2)”.
Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 1214(c)(3), added par. (10).
1984 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 474(r)(29)(G), struck out ‘except in the cases provided for in section 1451 and’ before ‘except as otherwise provided in regulations’.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 42(a)(13), substituted ‘section 1273’ for ‘section 1232(b)’.
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 474(r)(29)(H), inserted ‘(as in effect before its repeal by the Tax Reform Act of 1984)’.
Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 98-369, Sec. 127(e)(1), added par. (9).
1983 - Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98-21 added subsec. (g).
1976 - Pub. L. 94-455 struck out in subsecs. (a), (c)(2), (4), (8), (d), ‘or his delegate’ after ‘Secretary’.
1971 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92-178, Sec. 313(a), inserted ‘(other than original issue discount as defined in section 1232(b))’ after ‘interest’.
Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 92-178, Sec. 313(d), added par. (8).
1969 - Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91-172 added subsec. (f).
1966 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(1), substituted ‘or of any foreign partnership’ for ‘, or of any partnership not engaged in trade or business within the United States and composed in whole or in part of nonresident aliens,’.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(2)-(4), struck out ‘(except interest on deposits with persons carrying on the banking business paid to persons not engaged in business in the United States)’ after ‘The items of income referred to in subsection (a) are interest’ and substituted ‘gains described in section 402(a)(2), 403(a)(2), or 631(b) or (c), amounts subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(C), gains subject to tax under section 871(a)(1)(D), and gains on transfers described in section 1235 made on or before October 4, 1966’ for ‘and amounts described in section 402(a)(2), section 403(a)(2), section 631(b) and (c), and section 1235, which are considered to be gains from the sale or exchange of capital assets’ in text preceding par. (1), and inserted provision for treatment of items of income referred to in subsec. (a) in the case of nonresident alien individuals who are members of domestic partnerships.
Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(5), substituted ‘in the case of any item of income (other than compensation for personal services) which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and which is included in the gross income of the recipient under section 871(b)(2) for the taxable year’ for ‘in the case of dividends paid by a foreign corporation unless (A) such corporation is engaged in trade or business within the United States, and (B) more than 85 percent of the gross income of such corporation for the 3-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the declaration of such dividends (or for such part of such period as the corporation has been in existence) was derived from sources within the United States as determined under part I of subchapter N of chapter 1’ after ‘shall be required’.
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(6), struck out provisions which had served to limit to compensation for personal services of nonresident alien individuals who enter and leave the United States at frequent intervals and of nonresident alien individuals for the period they are temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subparagraph (F) and (J) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended, the application of the exemption from deduction and withholding under subsec. (a), leaving the exemption under subsec. (a) applicable to compensation for personal services without further limitation.
Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(7), substituted ‘gains described in section 402(a)(2), 403(a)(2), or 631(b) or (c), gains subject to tax under section 871 (a)(1)(D), and gains on transfers described in section 1235 made on or before October 4, 1966,’ for ‘amounts described in section 402(a)(2), section 403(a)(2), section 631(b) and (c), and section 1235, which are considered to be gains from the sale or exchange of capital assets,’ and ‘amounts payable,’ for ‘proceeds from such sale or exchange,’.
Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(8), added par. (7).
Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 89-809, Sec. 103(h)(9), added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).
1964 - Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 88-272 reduced the withholding rate from 18% to 14%.
1961 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 110(d)(1), required a tax equal to 18 percent of the item in the case of any item of income specified in second sentence of subsection (b).
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 110(d)(2), inserted provisions listing items of income from which tax shall be deducted and withheld at the rate of 18 percent.
Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 87-256, Sec. 110(d)(3), authorized the exemption from deduction and withholding of the compensation for personal services of a nonresident alien individual for the period he is temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under subpar. (F) or (J) of section 101(a)(15) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended.
1958 - Subsecs. (b), (c)(5). Pub. L. 85-866 inserted ‘section 403(a)(2),’ after ‘section 402(a)(2),’.
1956 - Subsec. (c)(6). Act July 18, 1956, added section 544(f) to act Aug. 26, 1954, which section amended this subsection by adding par. (6).
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2014 AMENDMENTS
Amendments by Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, Sec. 221(a)(92), effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Dec. 19, 2014].
Section 221(b)(2) of Pub. L. 113-295, Div. A, provided the following Savings Provision:
“(2) SAVINGS PROVISION.—If—
“(A) any provision amended or repealed by the amendments made by this section applied to—
“(i) any transaction occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act [Enacted: Dec. 19, 2014],
“(ii) any property acquired before such date of enactment, or
“(iii) any item of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account before such date of enactment, and
“(B) the treatment of such transaction, property, or item under such provision would (without regard to the amendments or repeals made by this section) affect the liability for tax for periods ending after date of enactment, nothing in the amendments or repeals made by this section shall be construed to affect the treatment of such transaction, property, or item for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after such date of enactment.”
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2004 AMENDMENT
Amendment by section 411(a)(3) of Pub. L. 108-357 applicable to dividends with respect to taxable years of regulated investment companies beginning after December 31, 2004.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT
Amendment by section 320(a)(1) of Pub. L. 103-296 effective for calendar quarters following August 15, 1994.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1993 AMENDMENT
Amendment by section 13237(c)(4) of Pub. L. 103-66 effective for interest received after December 31, 1993.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1992 AMENDMENTS
Amendments by section 521(b) of Pub. L. 102-318 effective for distributions after December 31, 1992.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT
Amendment by section 1001(d)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 100-647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99-514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT
Amendment by section 123(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in the case of scholarships and fellowships granted after Aug. 16, 1986, see section 151(d) of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.
Amendment by section 1214(c)(3) of Pub. L. 99-514 applicable to payments made in a taxable year of the payor beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1214(d) of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.
Amendment by section 1810(d)(3)(D) of Pub. L. 99-514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98-369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99-514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT
Amendment by section 42(a)(13) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to taxable years ending after July 18, 1984, see section 44 of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1271 of this title.
Amendment by section 127(e)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369 applicable to interest received after July 18, 1984, with respect to obligations issued after such date, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 127(g)(1) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.
Amendment by section 474(r)(29)(G), (H) of Pub. L. 98-369 not applicable with respect to obligations issued before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 475(b) of Pub. L. 98-369, set out as a note under section 33 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1983 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 98-21 applicable to benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after such date, except for any portion of a lump-sum payment of social security benefits received after Dec. 31, 1983, if the generally applicable payment date for such portion was before Jan. 1, 1984, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 98-21, set out as an Effective Date note under section 86 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1971 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 92-178 applicable with respect to payments occurring on or after Apr. 1, 1972, see section 313(f) of Pub. L. 92-178, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1966 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 89-809 applicable with respect to payments made in taxable years of recipients beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 103(n)(2) of Pub. L. 89-809, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1964 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 88-272 applicable to payments made after seventh day following Feb. 24, 1964, see section 302(d) of Pub. L. 88-272, set out as a note under section 3402 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1961 AMENDMENT
Section 110(h)(2) of Pub. L. 87-256 provided that: ‘The amendments made by subsection (d) of this section (amending this section) shall apply with respect to payments made after December 31, 1961.’
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1958 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 85-866 effective Sept. 3, 1958, see section 40(c) of Pub. L. 85-866, set out as a note under section 871 of this title.
REPEALS
Section 544(f) of act Aug. 26, 1954, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed by Pub. L. 85-141, except insofar as such section 544(f) affected this section.
APPLICABILITY OF CERTAIN AMENDMENTS BY PUB. L. 99-514 IN RELATION TO TREATY OBLIGATIONS OF UNITED STATES
For nonapplication of amendments by sections 123(b)(2) and 1214(c)(3) of Pub. L. 99-514 to the extent application of such amendments would be contrary to any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100-647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99-514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 100-647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.
PLAN AMENDMENTS NOT REQUIRED UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1989
For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI (Sec. 1101-1147 and 1171-1177) or title XVIII (Sec. 1800-1899A) of Pub. L. 99-514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99-514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.
WITHHOLDING OF TAX ON NONRESIDENT ALIENS AND FOREIGN CORPORATIONS
Pub. L. 97-248, title III, Sec. 342, Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 635, as amended by Pub. L. 99-514, Sec. 2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: ‘Not later than 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act (Sept. 3, 1982), the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe regulations establishing certification procedures, refund procedures, or other procedures which ensure that any benefit of any treaty relating to withholding of tax under sections 1441 and 1442 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (formerly I.R.C. 1954) is available only to persons entitled to such benefit.'